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澳门星际xj1277com_入读美国顶尖高中一年后,这位“美高党”告诉我们她是这么阅读的
2020-01-11 16:15:13      

澳门星际xj1277com_入读美国顶尖高中一年后,这位“美高党”告诉我们她是这么阅读的

澳门星际xj1277com,看点 几周前,外滩教育大本营来了一名叫m. adler的实习生,阅读编辑刚与她聊上几句,外滩君就暗自感慨这是一个“前浪死在沙滩上”的年代——她的阅读经验完全超出了外滩君的预期。既然如此,就干脆让她写点东西来与读者诸君分享了。她在文中详细介绍了老师是怎样指导他们“分解”一本书、组织圆桌讨论,并进行有理有据的读后感写作的。觉得本文头图与外滩君平日画风有异?这就对了,这是她自己设计并拍摄的!

文 | m. adler 编辑 | 李论

来到加州的撒切尔中学已经一年了。这里的高一学生必修 english i 的课程,目的是为了让大家融入该校的英语教学方式,也为高二更多的写作课程打下基础。我们的英语老师叫ms. murphy-root,她是一位亲切和蔼、通情达理、诙谐幽默的老师,很擅长为我们的写作提出指导意见,并在一年内带我们读了很多好书。

美高学生是这样阅读的

过去一年里,我们班阅读了学校编订的入门短篇小说合集、捷罗姆·大卫·塞林格创作的长篇小说《麦田里的守望者》、荷马的名著《奥德赛》、诗篇合集、琪马曼达·阿迪奇的《purple hibiscus》、莎翁的《奥赛罗》和玛赞·莎塔碧的漫画书《persepolis》。

对于我来说,除了荷马的《奥德赛》不是我擅长的阅读形式,其他的阅读作业都不是特别困难。老师非常强调批注的重要性,并经常告诉我们要把好的点子写在书页的空白处,方便以后上课提问、写作使用。

在阅读《the catcher in the rye》与《purple hibiscus》时,老师更加注重对文章的分析。她会每天布置几十页的阅读作业,让我们把好词好句的分析写下来。第二天,她会带着我们一起分析前一天的作业,也会适当地每几周出一次阅读小测试,巩固阅读技巧。或者布置一篇小作文,比如模仿麦田守望者主人公愤世嫉俗的语气,写写在撒切尔的生活。大家在书的空白处也都写满了批注,贴满了小帖子。

每次读完这些书,都会布置一篇议论、思考性的大作文(一般谷歌文档写四页)。根据书本原文,自己提出关于社会、人权的问题,结合文本进行探讨。

《奥德赛》与《奥赛罗》对于我们来说相对比较枯燥。老师为了让我们更多地体会文本,会让大家把书中情节演出来。她会让我们站在椅子上,有气势地扮演人物。在读完《奥德赛》后,我们并没有像平时那样去写一篇总结性的议论文,而是采用艺术的角度去选取一段场景,用画、粘、剪的方式去表达,再写一小段的艺术收获。

作者画的《奥德赛》

为了让我们更好地体会漫画原文,老师还特地引入《persepolis》的法语原声电影,让我们见证在伊朗战争背景下长大的女孩的成长经历。

我们的期末考试中有一篇大作文,要求我们在两个小时内写一篇几千词的对比文章,范围是从本学期所有书籍里任选两位主人公,对比、分析他们的不同。

平时校内还有各种参加文学大赛、演讲大赛的机会。因为我也喜欢文学,所以我积极参加了校内文学杂志投稿和munroe演讲大赛。

读原版书的习惯对我影响颇深

我从小阅读英文原版书籍。四岁的时候我和父母来到美国亚特兰大居住两年。在那里,在父亲的培养和督促下,养成了每天至少阅读半小时的习惯。

六岁回到中国后,我仍然在家长的督促下保持着阅读的习惯。小时候我喜欢阅读任何讲同龄人故事的小说,记得当时最喜欢的一套书籍就是关于喜欢捣乱的小女孩 junie. b. jones 的校园搞笑事件,好比中国的“淘气包马小跳”系列。

junie. b. jones系列书

类似的作家作品用诙谐幽默的笔调让我爱上了英语阅读。在增加单词量、增强语感的同时,也为我打下了基本写作和交流的基础。国内学校的英语习题也难不倒我了,反而给了我更多课余时间来阅读更多的书籍。

到了六年级,我开始发现自己阅读的书越来越厚,但因为学校的作业量上去了,阅读时间也就少了许多。为了满足阅读的喜好,我还是在网上、机场里、外文书店里尽量买书。个人偏好读任何当下被瞩目或被推荐的虚构文学作品,下面为自己喜欢的几本打打广告,当然还有很多很多好看的书。

《if i stay》、《looking for alaska》、《paper towns》、《the selection》、《playing along》,这些都是那种会揪着你的心让你往下读的情节类青少年小说书,我的美国朋友们都非常喜欢这类书籍。

《still alice》、《inside the o’briens》深入老年痴呆症患者和亨廷顿舞蹈症患者的心理,告诉读者们这一类病人的痛苦,以及爱的力量。

虽然我个人不太读科幻类小说,但还是比较推荐《divergent》、《seventh son》、《ender’s game》。偶尔也会因为撒切尔的马术背景,阅读骑马部主任最钟爱的《leaving cheyenne》——一部讲西部牛仔的精彩生活的书。美国的机场里也总能买到snl主持人amy poehler、tina fey的励志自传《yes please》、《bossypants》,讲述艰苦的艺人路,也包含了很多给女生的建议。目前感觉自己对历史政治类的书籍阅读不够多,希望能在以后继续拓展阅读视野,多读些历史、政治类的书籍。

作者推荐的原版书

读这些原版书让我对美高的课程有了准备,也不再害怕老师布置下来的阅读和写作任务。渐渐地我形成了自己的写作风格,在老师的指导下,我的写作也有了更大的提高。

尽管平时事情很多,但我还是会去亚马逊上买书,在周末闲暇时光里,多读些自己喜欢的书。书里的很多好词好句和表达手法都可以用到自己的写作里。从好书里学习到的人生道理也激励了我去做很多事情。很多原版书都告诉我不要局限于一地,不要满足于现状,要做自己,要探索。

曾经有人问我:“从小读书读到大,是一种什么样的体验?” 说实话,也没觉得自己读了几本书,但随着时间的推移,书架上的书还是慢慢地堆积起来了。现在,我的书已经多到只能堆在衣柜里面,而小时候的书也借给了更小的孩子。我的阅读从一开始是因家庭管教不得不做的事情,变成了自己真心喜欢的事情。

四岁养成读原版书的习惯影响了我一生,让我的出国路顺畅了很多,毕竟不用花费太多时间去背单词。个人非常强烈地推荐去读其他语言的书,既能锻炼思考能力,也能拓展视野。大家也肯定都知道,读完一本好书是件很快乐的事情。

如何“分解”一本书

跟很多学校一样,thacher的english i 课程培养学生批判性思维的能力,为将来高年级的课程,甚至是标化考试做准备。在老师的眼中,学生能够论述一个具有意义的话题,提出建议,并换角度去表达自己的想法是件很重要的事情。接下来以我这学期的书目《purple hibiscus》为例,讲讲ms. murphy-root是怎么带着我们一起去“解书”的。

purple hibiscus

这本书的背景是在一个我们都没有了解过的地方:埃努古——在尼日利亚的一个城市。读者通过15岁女孩kambili的双眼,去探索政治改革、家庭暴力、宗教压迫、人权、改变、爱情等问题。那这样一本书,我们应该怎么去读呢?

老师先给我们讲了书的背景。本书的作者曾受另一位著名黑人作家chinua achebe的影响——chinua achebe被誉为“非洲现代文学之父”,他的成名之作things fall apart(《瓦解》)的书名被运用到了《purple hibiscus》里。

老师先给我们读了achebe的一些短篇,让我们对他笔下非洲重男轻女和帝国主义背景有了初步的了解。然后老师带我们观看了短片,让我们了解了一些严重受西方文化影响的非洲青年人。并且,还请我们学校来自非洲、并钻研非洲历史的mr. okpalugo老师给所有高一的学生讲解了非洲历史和尼日利亚的国情。有了种种历史背景铺垫后,我们才打开书。

我们“解书”的基础还是去精读+写批注+讨论。每晚会布置一定的阅读量,不把书好好读完是没办法去做后面很多事情的。我们在空白处写下几样东西:

1)本章节的大标题。主要讲了什么?提到了什么社会性问题吗?

2)人物表现。可以用修饰性的词语,或者把自己对人物的想法写下来。本书以kambili的生活为线索,在她的经历中我们对很多人物都有了想法。原本胆小懦弱、没有独立性的kambili,后来因为受到自己性格刚强、独立自主的阿姨aunty ifeoma的影响而做出改变。同样胆小懦弱的母亲mama beatrice;崇尚白人文化、宗教狂热、实施家暴的父亲papa eugene;渴望自由的哥哥jaja;一开始误解kambili,以为她是典型富家女的amaka;kambili的心上人,比她大很多的牧师father amadi…… 随着这些人物的推动,故事背后反映的问题也逐渐浮出水面。

3)任何问题都可以写下来,我们都可以去辩论。

所以有了这些准备后,第二天的课堂,不再只是老师给学生上课,而是学生和学生之间的圆桌探讨。每个人都有发声权。老师会引领我们提出自己的问题,然后教室里15个人就很有礼貌地炸开了锅,每个人都有想法,每个人都想表达。就这本书而言,我们耐(偶)心(尔)讨(吵)论(架)的内容可以小到一个词在文本中的作用,大到女权表达在社会中的影响。每个学生都对问题有独特的见解,我们吸收对方的想法,好的论点就会写在书上,课后再思考。

撒切尔中学的圆桌探讨课程

最精彩的一次争辩是关于结尾: mama beatrice 对 papa eugene 下毒是恶意谋杀还是自身防护?

15个人站在黑板前,认为谋杀和防身的分别站在两边,也可以选择中立,但得说出原因。然后每个人45秒,为自己的论点、为人物辩护。这么一说,对人权、人性的评价都出来了。两边的同学都说(吵)得停不下来。支持“这是防身”的我为了论点也豁出去了,和对面支持 “这是谋杀”的男生辩论得特别过瘾。

在如此多的评论中,我们学到了很多知识。老师大多只是辅助作用,她偶尔会插话,让我们换个立场去思考,或者解释自己的想法。

所以说,我们批判性思维的习惯,更多地是在和另外14个人的讨论中养成的,而不是纯粹地去死读文本然后写篇作文。能够接受他人立场、评价并分析他人语言、再产生自己的更好的想法,是学习中很重要的事情。

课堂上的作者

这本书有一个大看点: “good woman-bad woman dynamic” (好女人-坏女人的多元化)。本文的mama beatrice是个安静、顾家的女人。她多年忍受papa eugene的家暴,并不离婚,因为考虑到孩子的存在,以及在那个背景下,离婚是不被他们所信仰的宗教接受的。她是“好女人”,甘做侍者,接受社会上男人地位高的事实。母亲的懦弱影响着女儿(我们的主人公)kambili。但kambili生命中还有阿姨aunty ifeoma的影响。这位性格鲜明、坚强励志的女性,在男人主宰的世界里,却成为了一位有主见、有动力、有声音、有梦想的女人。这让kambili深深震惊,并在最后学习了这种精神,坚持做自己、爱自己、尊重自己。

根据上面所说的,我们老师又展开了下一个“好女人-坏女人”的话题。应该做哪种女人?两种女人的利害?21世纪更接受哪种女人?21世界里应该做哪种女人?违背社会和家庭?还是违背自己?这些都是我们探讨的话题。在教室里又是一场长达50分钟的辩论,各抒己见。最后,老师让我们梳理自己的观点,写一篇作文来表达自己的想法。

当然,还有很多精彩的课堂讨论,都是来塑造我们批判性思维的,让我们去“解书”。“解书”的过程中,了解人性是怎么一回事、历史是怎么一回事、社会是怎么一回事……

这里再提一本我们读的漫画persepolis(《我在伊朗长大》)。别小瞧“漫画”这个词,跟上本一样,同样是残酷的政治压迫、同样受西方文化的影响、同样为女权奋斗、同样是渴望自由的同龄少女,两者之间有很多相同,也有不同。老师希望我们换个角度去读文学,才引入了这本书,还引入了翻拍的法文电影(原文女主人公marji后来去了法国留学,逃离伊朗),原汁原味的电影让我更好地理解了内容。

persepolis

最后的期末考试中,老师让我们从这学期所有书籍中,任选两个人物做对比。对比的话题有社会背景、社会偏见、寻找自我、暴力影响等等话题,确立一个主论点(后面还有分论点和文本原句,支持自己的主论点),最后联系回自身。两个小时,一篇作文,用批判性思考和精读的方式去分析两个人。我比较低调地选择了“家的意义”这个话题,选的人物就是上文两个跟我同龄的女主人公。我对kambili和marji的家庭地位、国家政乱、渴望她们没有的自由,以及最后两者都选择离开家很感兴趣。我的作文重点讨论了在种种家庭和社会因素下,“家”的定义对于两个女孩子来说(以及最后对于我来说),是怎么改变的。以下就是我的作文:

english final: home away from home

they say home is the safe harbor for all lost boats. however, stray boats can always encounter the possibility of finding happiness outside the boundaries their home has dictated for them.

in purple hibiscusby adichie, the shy and unsocial protagonist kambili finds happiness and laughter in aunty ifeoma’s house, far away from her father’s abuse back in enugu.

in persepolisby satrapi, the precocious and outspoken marji eventually realizes her home in iran is not the place to find her own freedom. both of these girls do not have a perfect home, violence and repression surrounds where they come from. initially they strive to survive and stay, yet as time goes on and they encounter reality in the outside world, the meaning of “home” changes for them both.

both kambili and marji are into rich and seemingly perfect families with strong western influences. papa eugene in purple hisbicuspractically worships white people because he thinks they are more connected to god. his thoughts influence his children and his own actions, as he does not allow them to “see sin and walk right into it” (adichie 194).

domestic abuse occurs in this family of four when the children don’t follow papa’s rules, or when they don’t follow god’s rules. an instance in the book is when jaja and mama break the eucharistic fast for kambili to eat something before taking her pain meds for cramps. papa, however, does not understand kambili’s pain and begins to hit her with his belt while yelling “has the devil asked you all to go on errands for him?” (adichie102)

later they all changed and walk into church pretending like they are the perfect family. on the other hand, in persepolis, marji has more permissive parents than kambili who are just as influenced by western societal ideals as papa eugene. marji’s parents party and drink just like westerners, despite the heavy government repression. on the outside, the whole family follows the rules in iran, but they are secretly rebelling against what the government opposes on people.

this sends a message to marji saying that freedom is out there if you want it. this is further reflected when the teenage marji narrates “i put my posters up in my room, i put my 1983 nikes on and my denim jackets with the michael jackson button, and of course, my headscarf.” (satrapi 131)

we can clearly see that marji is strongly influenced by her western idols while she must obey laws in iran. freedom at home is restricted for both kambili and marji. their background does not allow them to express themselves freely as they witness the bewildering contrast of their public life and home life.

both kambili and marji experience changes in society and go through revolutions. purple hibiscusoffers less details about the revolution in nigeria but rather focuses on police corruption and brutality. however, it is still evident that this affects kambili’s life.

papa eugeneowns a newspaper company that writes the truth about the government. his editor-in-chief, ade coker, is bombed for a revealing article he writes. kimball describes papa after the incident as “crumpled on a sofa in the living room, sobbing.” (adichie 206)

kambili not only witnesses the loss of lives, she also sees when papa throws wads of money to policemen and guards to stay out of trouble.

kambili strongly wishes to change the state of things especially when a few men come to raid aunty ifeoma’s house with no permission and evidence. she is indignant with her country and wishes to change that, but she can’t.

meanwhile, marji is also influenced by the revolution in her country. her family’s discussion of politics leads her to subconsciously eager to read and learn about what is happening around her. marji is rather curious and inquisitive, especially when her uncle anoosh, a recent prisoner, is let out. marji adores anyone who is a “hero”. stories about the revolution are considered bedtime stories for her. she bothers her uncle with thousands of questions about his personal and political life such as “are you married? do you have children? how old are you?” (satrapi 54).

while marji marches about the living room screaming political slogans, her parents do not allow her to attend demonstrations. little marji wishes to make iran a better place, only she does not know how to.

both kambili and marji are forcefully put in a completely different environment where they must learn how to fit in. kambili and jaja are invited by their aunty ifeoma to visit for a while.

kambili does not know how to deal with a household full of laughter because her own house is always so restricted to religion and abuse. she struggles to fit in at first. she only talks when asked and does not stand up for herself when her cousin amaka makes fun of kambili’s background by saying “maybe it is not as good as the fancy rice she eats at home.” (adichie 120)

aunty ifeoma’s house is the sudden freedom that kambili encounters, and the readers see that she does not know how to handle it. as time progresses, the once abused and shut down kambili begins to open up. we see this when she tries on lipstick, not only to be more like her strong and independent aunt, but also to impress father amadi, whom she has a crush on.

she admits: “i felt the smile start to creep over my face, stretching my lips and cheeks, an embarrassed and amused smile.” (adichie 177) the narration may seem strange at first, but considering that kambili has never laughed in her own restrictive household, it is a rare and delightful opportunity for kambili to smile.

nonetheless, in persepolis, marji is forced to move to paris as her home is no longer a safe place to live. she also struggles to fit in with her roommates and classmates and begins to run with the wrong crowd. she rebels by changing her whole image while denying her nationality.

on the inside, however, she reveals: “the harder i tried to assimilate, the more i had the feeling that i was distancing myself from my culture, betraying my parents and my origins, that i was playing a game by somebody else’s rules.” (satrapi 193) marji feels immensely guilty on the inside for her cowardice and betrayal, as she puts up on armor on the outside to pretend like everything is fine as she lives in a strange country.

as they return home, both kambili and marji begin to feel unsafe. kambili copes with returning to her abusive father by secretly keeping a painting of her papa- nnukwu. even when papa pours boiling water onto her feet, she thinks only about the painting of papa-nnukwu and amaka’s laugh. kambili begins to realize that her life is horrible, but her happiness left in aunty ifeoms’a house can negate all the abuse she receives from papa eugene.

marji has a harder time coping with home in persepolis. fearing that her family and friends know about her failure in europe, she tries her best to leave her past behind. however, as reality catches up and she faces the swarming questions around her, marji falls into depression and attempts suicide for her disappointing past. yet the fact that she does not die proves to her that she is “not made to die.” (satrapi 273)

marji completely changes her image to a mature and attractive woman. she eventually stands up for herself and women everywhere by going against the administration of her college and saying “why is it that i, as a woman, am expected to feel nothing…” (satrapi 297)

even so, at the end of the book, marji knows that iran is not the place for her, and leaves without ever going back again. kambili and marji are both suddenly transferred into reality where they learn that home is not what it seems to be before they left.

the two protagonists go through a fast-paced, chaotic change of events, which finally brings them to see that the meaning of “home” has changed. it’s not where you are born, it’s where you belong.

kambili receives clarification for the fact that she doesn’t have to be perfect and life isn’t all about straight a’s and attending church services. marji come to the realization that freedom is not at home in iran and she must pursue her life elsewhere.

personally, i relate to the fact that home can change its meaning. i come from a place where for a long time i couldn’t find what i wanted in life. the realities and detriments in the education system and government eventually caught up with me.

for a long time, i felt so suffocated that i realized i no longer belonged there and i had to leave. eventually i packed up and ventured towards a place where i felt like i could find myself and be true to myself.

to me, shanghai has a more literal meaning of “home”. i was born there, i lived there, my parents are from there. yet i no longer feel safe under the bright city lights. i am faced with hundreds of people like marji when i return home. in my head, thacher is more emotionally attached to the word “home”. as i always like to say, i’m home away from home.

我稍微翻译下上面这篇文章的大意:

开头:简单介绍两个女主角kambili和marji,引入正题+主论点:两个女孩都是在暴力、压迫的环境下长大的,一开始她们尝试停留,但家的危险逼迫她们最终离开,“家”的定义也逐渐改变。

分段1-分论点:她们都生在富裕的家庭,有着浓厚的西方文化背景。kambili被崇尚白人的父亲家暴,心理扭曲;marji和父母不接受伊朗政府的压迫,背地里喜欢迈克尔·杰克逊、耐克、摇滚乐等西方元素。

分段2-分论点:她们都在政治改革的环境下长大。kambili见证父亲的报社主编因反政府而被炸死。marji从小关注大街上的政治游行,渴望参与。因为舅舅是个“英雄”,所以她一直希望能做出政治改变。

分段3-分论点:她们都被迫进入一个和家庭很不一样的环境,且必须学会如何适应。kambili来到了阿姨家里,这里有欢笑、自由和爱情,没有家暴,没有宗教逼迫。她一开始不适应这种自由的日子,总表现得怪怪的。marji逃到欧洲,她因为没有安全感,开始和不好的人群混在一起。她承认她有背叛祖国的罪恶感,这种罪恶感不断增强,直到吞噬了自己。

分段4-分论点:她们在回家后,都感到不安全。kambili回到了暴力的父亲身边,没有了自由,她必须学会继续寻找自己的快乐。marji在欧洲失败后回到伊朗。面对亲戚朋友的种种提问和指责,她无法接受并患上忧郁症,选择吞药自杀却没有成功。之后意识到她不是生来为死的。她彻底改头换面,去上大学,并在最后为女权发声。(所有分段必须摘抄原文支持论点并加以分析)

总结:kambili和marji都改变了自己对“家”的看法。家不是出生地,而是心的属向。最后联系自身,讲讲上海和撒切尔哪个才是我的“家”。

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